Inflammation of the pancreas or pancreatitis is a complete disaster for the entire digestive tract.
The pancreas produces hormones (insulin, glucacagon, lipocaine), enzymes needed for normal digestion and digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and bicarbonate ions, which neutralize the acid secretion of the stomach.
Pancreatitis is divided into acute and chronic, but in any case it is necessary to follow a diet for this disease.
General principles of diet
The task of the diet in pancreatitis is mechanical, chemical and thermal sparing of the gastrointestinal tract. That is, by following the medical mass for inflammation of the pancreas, its normal functioning, protection of the stomach and intestines from aggressive foods, reduction of gallbladder activation and prevention of liver diseases are achieved.
The table for the treatment of pancreatitis according to Pevzner's classification is table number 5p. Table number 5p is slightly different from table number 5, which is prescribed for liver disease, but also has a number of similar dietary restrictions.
The diet for pancreatitis should be nutritious, high in protein but low in fat and carbohydrates (especially sugar) to prevent liver degeneration in fatty hepatosis and the development of diabetes.
The daily amount of essential nutrients in the diet for pancreatitis:
- proteins: 100 - 120 g (of which 65% are animals);
- fats: 80 - 100 g (of which 15 - 20% are vegetable);
- carbohydrates: 300 - 350 g (sugar not more than 30 - 40 g)
- table salt 6 - 10 g (food should be salted);
- free liquid 1, 5 - 2 liters.
The energy value of the diet is 2500 - 2600 kcal.
General principles of the diet for pancreatitis
In case of acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of the chronic form, all food should be strained, boiled or steamed, which provides maximum stomach relief.
Food should not be served hot or cold. The optimum temperature of the food is 20-50 ° C.
Sense of proportion
In pancreatitis, it is very important to follow the measure with food. Overeating is not allowed, as it creates not only an increased load on the pancreas, but also on the entire digestive tract as a whole.
Number of stores
Food intake during the day should be partial, up to 5-6 times a day. You should not try to satisfy your hunger with a large portion of food at once, you should follow the principle: "a little is better, but often". This will facilitate the work of the pancreas, the food is better absorbed and the pain after eating will practically disappear.
Give up bad habits
Alcohol consumption is dangerous not only from the development of alcoholism, but in pancreatitis alcoholic beverages provoke the formation of protein "accumulations" - plaques in the pancreatic ducts, clogging them, disrupting the outflow of glandular secretions in the duodenum, like the duodenum. inflammatory process in the body and provoke to improve self-decomposition.
Nicotine, in turn, prevents the production of enzymes that detoxify acetaldehyde (this substance is formed during the breakdown of alcohol in the body, provokes inflammation of the pancreas).
In case of pancreatitis, you should refuse foods that stimulate the production of gastric juice and, accordingly, pancreatic secretion. That is, the production of pancreatic enzymes significantly exceeds the need for them for the digestive tract as a whole, and therefore in pancreatitis, the excess enzymes are spent on the digestion of the pancreas itself.
In order to reduce the amount of synthesized enzymes and to alleviate the inflammation of the organs, it is necessary to abandon a number of products:
- Soups.Soups prepared in meat, mushrooms and fish broths, complex (cabbage soup, borscht, sour soup), dairy, cold (okroshka, beetroot soup) are prohibited.
- Bread.Fresh wheat or rye, puff pastry and confectionery, tortillas, fried pies.
- Meat.Fatty meats (pork, lamb) and poultry (duck, goose), sausages, liver, kidneys and brains, smoked meats and canned food.
- Fish.Oily fish, salted and smoked, fried, canned foods.
- Milk and lactic acid products.Of the lactic acid products you should abandon those that have a high percentage of fat - sour cream, fatty, salty and spicy cheeses.
- Cereals.Prohibition of cereals from barley, millet, corn and wheat, as they are in the stomach and intestines for a long time, stimulating the production of pancreatic juice.
- Eggs.Fried and hard boiled.
- Vegetables.Cabbage, eggplant, radishes, turnips, turnips, garlic and spinach, bell.
- Sweets.Chocolate, unprocessed raw fruits and berries (dates, grapes, figs, bananas), ice cream, jam.
- Spices.Black and red peppers, coriander, horseradish, hot tomato sauce, vinegar, etc.
- Drinks.Coffee, cocoa, strong tea, sweet carbonated drinks, grape juice.
- Fat.All refractory fats (pork, beef, lamb fat), tail fat, bear fat and others.
Foods recommended for pancreatitis should facilitate the work of the pancreas, reduce the amount of enzymes synthesized by it, quickly evacuate from the stomach and small intestine and not cause flatulence, which provokes pre-existing abdominal pain.
In addition, to facilitate the synthesis of enzymes in the pancreas that contain protein, food must be digestible and rich in protein.
List of authorized products:
- Bread.Yesterday's or dry white bread, dry unsweetened biscuits, biscuits.
- Soups.Soups should be vegetarian, with mashed vegetables (carrots, pumpkin, zucchini, potatoes), noodles, semolina or oatmeal.
- Meat.Varieties with low fat content (beef without films and tendons, beef), white chicken, turkey, rabbit. The meat should be cooked and preferably pureed (souffle, steamed cutlets, dumplings), beef stroganoff.
- Fish.Low fat varieties (cod, pollock, carp) cooked or cut, aspic.
- Cereals.Buckwheat (pureed), oatmeal, semolina, rice porridge in water with milk 50/50, puddings and casserole with cereals, cottage cheese.
- Milk and fermented dairy products.Low fat milk, non-sour and low-fat cottage cheese, yoghurt, kefir, fermented milk with not more than 2% fat, unsalted and low-fat cheese.
- Eggs.Omelettes steamed with egg whites, 1 egg yolk once a week.
- Vegetables.Potatoes, carrots, zucchini, beets, cauliflower, pumpkin, green peas.
- Sweets.It is better to replace sugar with xylitol; from fruits and berries use only ripe and non-sour varieties, making mousses, jellies, puddings, compotes (all in puree), baked apples from them.
- Spices and sauces.Dairy products or sauces on diluted vegetable broth, when adding flour, do not saute.
- Fat.Butter (not more than 30 grams per day), refined vegetable oil (10 - 15 grams), add oils to ready meals.
- Drinks.Lightly brewed tea with lemon, still mineral water, rosehip decoction, juices, half diluted with water.
Diet for acute pancreatitis
In the first days of the disease, when the pain syndrome is expressed, it is necessary to adhere to the principle: "hunger, cold and calm". That is, excluding any food, a bottle of warm water with ice on the stomach, the patient must maintain physical and emotional peace.
It is allowed to drink non-carbonated alkaline water up to 1, 5 - 2 liters per day. From 3 to 4 days in the menu are introduced slimy decoctions, unsweetened tea and decoction of rose hips, liquid, boiled porridge. For 5-6 days are allowed protein omelet, grated buckwheat or oatmeal, some biscuits, cooked vegetables, meals up to 6 times a day in small portions.
Gradually puddings, mousses, casseroles, diluted juices are introduced in the menu. With the disappearance of the acute period, they move to a treatment table № 5p.
Need a diet
The diet for pancreatitis is aimed at maximally sparing the pancreas, reducing inflammation in the gland, stopping a painful attack and preventing the development of possible complications.
In addition, the diet normalizes the production of digestive enzymes, blocks the "eating" of the pancreas itself, maintains the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, limits the intake of toxic substances in the body and normalizes the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract as a whole.
Consequences of not following the diet
In case of non-compliance with the diet in acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, the following complications occur:
- jaundice (due to impaired bile flow);
- bleeding in the digestive tract (stomach ulcers, varicose veins of the esophagus, Mallory-Weiss syndrome);
- portal hepatic hypertension; portal or splenic vein thrombosis;
- duodenal injury (obstruction);
- malignant tumor of the pancreas;
- diabetes mellitus;
- brain damage (encephalopathy).