Nutrition and diet in diabetes. Allowed and forbidden foods

Proper, rational and carefully balanced diet in diabetes is a key factor in maintaining systemic stable compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. Unfortunately, there are currently no effective drugs that can completely relieve a person from diabetes, so it is the diet, along with the right daily routine and, if necessary, taking medication, can help the patient to live comfortably and without fear ofhealth.

Healthy eating

Healthy food

Doctors have long known about the need for a diet for diabetes - it is medical nutrition in the pre-insulin era that is the only effective mechanism to combat the problem. Diet is especially important for patients with type 1 diabetes, where the likelihood of coma with decompensation and even death is high. For diabetics with type 2 disease, nutritional therapy is usually prescribed for weight correction and a more predictable stable course of the disease.

Basic principles

  • The basic concept of the therapeutic diet for each type of diabetes is the so-called unit of bread - a theoretical measure of the equivalent of ten grams of carbohydrates. Modern nutritionists have developed special sets of tables for all types of products, indicating the amount of XE per 100 grams of product. Every day a patient with diabetes is recommended to take products with a total "value" of 12-24 XE - the dosage is chosen individually, depending on the body weight, age and level of physical activity of the patient.
  • Keep a detailed food diary. All foods consumed should be recorded so that, if necessary, the nutritionist can adjust the food system.
  • Number of moves. It is recommended for diabetics to eat 5-6 times. At the same time, breakfast, lunch and dinner should make up 75 percent of the daily ration, the remaining 2-3 snacks - the remaining 25 percent.
  • Individualization of food therapy. Modern science recommends individualization of classical diets, their adaptation to the physiological preferences of the patient, regional factors (set of local dishes and traditions) and other parameters, while maintaining a balance of all components of a balanced diet.
  • Substitution equivalence. If you change your diet, then the selected alternative products should be as interchangeable as possible in terms of calorie content, as well as the ratio of protein, fat, carbohydrates. The main groups of components in this case include products containing mainly carbohydrates (1), proteins (2), fats (3) and multicomponent (4). Substitutions are only possible within these groups. If the substitution occurs in (4), then nutritionists make adjustments to the composition of the entire diet, while replacing the elements of (1), it is necessary to take into account the equivalence in terms of glycemic index - this can be supported by Tables XE, described above.

Foods strictly forbidden in diabetes

Modern dietetics, armed with advanced diagnostic methods and research on the effects of substances and products on the body, in recent years has significantly narrowed the list of absolutely forbidden foods for patients with diabetes. At present, dishes based on refined refined carbohydrates, pastries and sugar, as well as products containing refractory fats and a lot of cholesterol, are absolutely contraindicated.

There is a relative ban on white bread, rice and semolina, as well as pasta - they can be used strictly limited. In addition, regardless of the type of diabetes, alcohol is completely contraindicated.

Diabetic diet

Diet for diabetes

In some cases, strict adherence to diet in type 2 diabetes helps to fully compensate for carbohydrate metabolism and not to use drugs. For diabetics with type 1 diabetes and other types, nutritional therapy is considered and is an important element of the complex therapy of the problem.

Types of diabetes in diabetes

  • Classic.This type of food therapy was developed in the 30s and 40s of the twentieth century and is a balanced, albeit strict type of diet. Its impressive representative in home nutrition is "Table number 9" with numerous, later variations. This type of therapeutic diet is suitable for almost all diabetics with type 1 and 2 diabetes.
  • Modern.The principles of individualization and the peculiarities of the mentality of certain social groups have given rise to a variety of menus and modern diets, with less strict bans on certain types of products and taking into account new properties discovered in the latter, which allowed the introduction of preprohibited products in the daily diet. The main principles here are the factor for the use of "protected" carbohydrates containing a sufficient amount of dietary fiber. However, it should be understood that this type of medical nutrition is selected strictly individually and cannot be considered as a universal mechanism for compensating for carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Low carb diets.Designed primarily for overweight type 2 diabetics. The basic principle is to exclude as much as possible the consumption of foods high in carbohydrates, but not to the detriment of health. However, it is contraindicated for children; it also cannot be used for people with kidney problems (late-stage nephropathy) and for diabetics with type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycaemia.
  • Vegetarian diets.Experimental studies in the early 20th century showed that vegan diets with a focus on significantly reducing the intake of high-fat foods not only contribute to weight loss, but also lower blood sugar. A large amount of whole vegetation, rich in dietary fiber and fiber, in some cases proves to be even more effective than the recommended specialized diets, especially since the vegetarian diet involves a significant reduction in total calories in the daily diet. This in turn significantly reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic conditions, can act as an independent prophylactic agent and effectively fight the onset of diabetes.

Daily menu

Menu for every day

Below we look at the classic diet menu for type 1 and type 2 diabetics, which is optimal for patients with mild to moderate diabetes. In case of severe decompensation, predisposition and hyper- and hypoglycemia, an individual diet should be developed by a nutritionist, taking into account human physiology, current health problems and other factors.

Basis:

  • Protein - 85-90 grams (sixty percent of animal origin).
  • Fat - 75-80 grams (one third of the vegetable base).
  • Carbohydrates - 250-300 grams.
  • Free liquid - about one and a half liters.
  • Salt - 11 grams.

The food system is partial, five to six times a day, the daily maximum energy value is not more than 2400 kcal.

Prohibited Products:

Meat / cooking fats, spicy sauces, sweet juices, muffins, rich broths, cream, pickles and marinades, fatty meats and fish, canned food, salted and saturated cheeses, pasta, semolina, rice, sugar, jams, alcohol, sugar-based ice cream and pastries, grapes, all raisins and bananas with dates / figs.

Allowed foods / dishes:

  • Flour products - rye and bran bread is allowed, as well as flour-free products with flavor.
  • Soups - borscht, cabbage soup, vegetable soups and stews in low-fat broth are optimal for a healing diet. Sometimes okroshka.
  • Meat. Low-fat varieties of beef, veal, pork. Restricted chicken, rabbit, lamb, boiled tongue and liver. From fish - any low-fat varieties cooked, steamed or baked without vegetable oil.
  • Dairy products. Low-fat cheeses, fermented dairy products without added sugar. Limited - 10% sour cream, low-fat or semi-fat cottage cheese. Eat eggs without yolks, as a last resort, in the form of omelets.
  • Cereals. Oatmeal, pearl barley, beans, buckwheat, barley, millet.
  • Vegetables. Carrots, beets, cabbage, pumpkin, zucchini, eggplant, cucumbers and tomatoes are recommended. Potatoes are limited.
  • Snacks and sauces. Salads of fresh vegetables, tomato sauces and low fat, horseradish, mustard and black pepper. Limited - squash or other vegetable caviar, vinaigrette, jelly fish, seafood dishes with a minimum of vegetable oil, low-fat beef jellies.
  • Fats - limited vegetables, butter and ghee.
  • Miscellaneous. Sugar-free drinks (tea, coffee, rosehip broth, vegetable juices), jellies, mousses, fresh sweet and sour non-exotic fruits, compotes. Very limited - honey and sweets with sweeteners.

Indicative weekly menu for diabetes

Indicative menu for a week with diabetes

The individual components of the menu below are subject to replacement according to the principles of equivalent replacement in the above groups.

Monday

  • We will have breakfast with two hundred grams of low-fat cottage cheese, to which you can add some fruit.
  • For the second time we have breakfast with a glass of 1% kefir.
  • We have lunch with 150 grams of beef, a plate of vegetable soup. For garnish - stewed vegetables in an amount of 100-150 grams.
  • Afternoon breakfast with a salad of fresh cabbage and cucumbers, seasoned with a teaspoon of olive oil. The total volume is 100-150 grams.
  • We have dinner with grilled vegetables (80 grams) and a medium-baked fish weighing up to two hundred grams.

Tuesday

  • We will have breakfast with a plate of buckwheat porridge - no more than 120 grams.
  • For the second time we have breakfast with two medium apples.
  • We have lunch with a plate of vegetable borsch, 100 grams of boiled beef. You can drink food with compote without added sugar.
  • Spend the afternoon with a glass of rosehip broth.
  • We have dinner with a bowl of fresh vegetable salad in the amount of 160-180 grams, as well as a boiled lean fish (150-200 grams).

Wednesday

  • We have breakfast with a casserole with cottage cheese - 200 grams.
  • Before lunch you can drink a glass of rosehip broth.
  • Lunch with a bowl of cabbage soup, two small fish cakes and a hundred grams of vegetable salad.
  • Afternoon breakfast with one boiled egg.
  • We have dinner with a plate of stewed cabbage and two medium-sized meatballs, cooked in the oven or steamed.

Thursday

  • We will have breakfast with an omelet of two eggs.
  • Before lunch you can eat a glass of minimal amount of fat or unsweetened yogurt.
  • We have dinner with cabbage soup and two units of stuffed peppers based on lean meat and permitted cereals.
  • Afternoon snack with two hundred grams of low-fat cottage cheese and a pot of carrots.
  • We have dinner with stewed chicken (two hundred grams per piece) and a plate with vegetable salad.

Friday

  • We will have breakfast with a plate of millet porridge and an apple.
  • Eat two medium-sized oranges before lunch.
  • Lunch with meat goulash (not more than one hundred grams), a plate of fish soup and a plate of barley.
  • Lunch with a plate of fresh vegetable salad.
  • We have dinner with a good portion of stewed vegetables with lamb, weighing up to 250 grams.

Saturday

  • We will have breakfast with a plate of bran-based porridge, you can eat one pear per bite.
  • Eat a soft-boiled egg before dinner.
  • We have dinner with a large plate of vegetable stew with the addition of lean meat - only 250 grams.
  • Have breakfast with a few permitted fruits.
  • We have dinner with one hundred grams of stewed lamb and a plate of vegetable salad in the amount of 150 grams.

Sunday

  • We will have breakfast with a bowl of low-fat cottage cheese with a small amount of fruit - only up to a hundred grams.
  • For lunch - two hundred grams of grilled chicken.
  • We have lunch with a plate of vegetable soup, a hundred grams of goulash and a bowl of vegetable salad.
  • Have a plate of berry salad for breakfast - a total of up to 150 grams.
  • We have dinner with one hundred grams of boiled beans and two hundred grams of steamed shrimp.

Questions and Answers

Is it possible to eat with diabetes: nuts, beets, rice, persimmon, pomegranate and pumpkin?

Rice is not allowed. Nuts (walnuts, peanuts, almonds, pine nuts) - possible, but in limited quantities (up to 50 grams per day), pre-peeled from shells and other elements. You can use beets for diabetes in cooked form, using it, for example, as a component of vinaigrette - no more than 100 grams per day.

Paradise apple is a food with a high glycemic index, but it contains a huge amount of nutrients and at the same time does not significantly affect sugar levels, as it contains mainly fructose. You can use it, but in strictly limited quantities, no more than one fruit every few days.

Pumpkin is on the green list for diabetes and can be eaten without any special restrictions (the only threshold is the total calories in the menu). Pomegranate can be consumed by type 2 diabetes, no more than 50 grams / day.

Is it possible to use honey in diabetes?

Until the 1990s, nutritionists attributed honey to an absolutely forbidden type of food for all types of diabetes. Recent studies show that in type 2 diabetics, a small amount of honey (5-7 grams per day) does not cause an increase in blood sugar levels due to the presence of a large amount of fructose in honey. It can therefore be consumed, but in limited quantities.

How many fruits can you eat for this disease?

Eat them in moderation, carefully choosing fruits for your diet - so grapes are absolutely contraindicated for you, while apples, oranges or persimmons can be included in the diet, of course in limited quantities - no more than 1-2 fruitsper day.

Is there a low carb diet for type 2 diabetes?

Low water diets are only for diabetics with type 2 diabetes who are overweight. Its main direction is to reduce the consumption of carbohydrates and reduce the total daily energy value of the diet. As an alternative, modern nutritionists often offer vegetarian diets - in some cases they are even more effective than the classic therapeutic diet food, usually recommended by doctors.

Do I have to follow a diet?

This is a must to help compensate for carbohydrate metabolism. A 6-course meal plan with a maximum total daily energy threshold of 2400 kcal for adults is the best option used everywhere.

Do you need a strict diet for diabetes?

Modern science has significantly expanded the range of permitted foods for diabetes, which has allowed patients to diversify their daily diet. The whole weight of the diet consists in calculating the amount of carbohydrates consumed, as well as the total calorie content and frequency of meals, while the individual components of the diet should be replaced equally in their groups.

The baby was born with diabetes. How to feed it?

It's not entirely clear what type of diabetes it is. If your child has transient neonatal diabetes, it is treatable and you can usually get rid of it forever. If we are talking about persistent neonatal diabetes, then the whole life of the baby requires the appointment of insulin and, accordingly, lifelong therapy. Both types of disease are quite rare and represent a genetic abnormality that sometimes leads to type 1 diabetes in the future.

Did you mean type 2 diabetes acquired in childhood? In any case, your child needs a physiological diet that is absolutely balanced in all respects, satisfying the energy needs of the growing body. The diet of a child with diabetes does not differ systematically from the diet of a healthy baby of the same age with identical parameters of physical development - only obviously harmful dishes based on refined refined carbohydrates, pastries and sugar, as well as foods containing refractory fats and manycholesterol. There is a relative ban on white bread, rice and semolina porridge, as well as pasta - they can be used strictly limited.

Of course, we are not talking about the most serious forms of the disease in the stage of decompensation. In any case, to develop an individual diet for a child, you need to contact a nutritionist, who will take into account the type of diabetes in your child, his body characteristics and other factors.